HERA was the Olympian queen of the gods, and the goddess of marriage, women, the sky and the stars of heaven. She was usually depicted as a beautiful woman wearing a crown and holding a royal, lotus-tipped sceptre, and sometimes accompanied by a lion, cuckoo or hawk. Her marriage to Zeus who seduced her in the guise of a cuckoo bird. The birth of Hephaistos Hephaestus who she produced alone without a father and cast from heaven because he was born crippled.
Her persecution of Herakles Heracles and Dionysos, the favourite bastard sons of Zeus. The punishment of Ixion, who was chained to a fiery wheel for attempting to violate the goddess. The assisting of the Argonauts in their quest for the golden fleece, their leader Iason Jason being one of her favourites. The judgement of Paris, in which she competed against Aphrodite and Athene for the prize of the golden apple.
The Trojan War in which she assisted the Greeks. This site contains a total of 6 pages describing the goddess, including general descriptions, mythology, and cult. The content is outlined in the Index of Hera Pages left column or below. The derivation of the name has been attempted in a variety of ways, from Greek as well as oriental roots, though there is no reason for having recourse to the latter, as Hera is a purely Greek divinity, and one of the few who, according to Herodotus ii.
Hera was, according to some accounts, the eldest daughter of Cronos and Rhea, and a sister of Zeus. Apollodorus i. According to the Homeric poems Il. This simple account is variously modified in other traditions. Being a daughter of Cronos, she, like his other children, was swallowed by her father, but afterwards released Apollod. Dei, vi. The Argives, on the other hand, related that she had been brought up by Euboea, Prosymna, and Acraea, the three daughters of the river Asterion Paus.
Several parts of Greece also claimed the honour of being her birthplace; among them are two, Argos and Samos, which were the principal seats of her worship.
Her marriage with Zeus also offered ample scope for poetical invention Theocrit. KarustosSamos Lactant. This marriage acts a prominent part in the worship of Hera under the name of hieros gamos; on that occasion all the gods honoured the bride with presents, and Ge presented to her a tree with golden apples, which was watched by the Hesperides in the garden of Hera, at the foot of the Hyperborean Atlas.
The Homeric poems know nothing of all this, and we only hear, that after the marriage with Zeus, she was treated by the Olympian gods with the same reverence as her husband.
Zeus himself, according to Homer, listened to her counsels, and communicated his secrets to her rather than to other gods xvi. Hera also thinks herself justified in censuring Zeus when he consults others without her knowing it i. Hera therefore is not, like Zeus, the queen of gods and men, but simply the wife of the supreme god. The idea of her being the queen of heaven, with regal wealth and power, is of a much later date. There is only one point in which the Homeric poems represent Hera as possessed of similar power with Zeus, viz.
But this idea is not further developed in later times. Her character, as described by Homer, is not of a very amiable kind, and its main features are jealousy, obstinacy, and a quarrelling disposition, which sometimes makes her own husband tremble i. Hence there arise frequent disputes between Hera and Zeus; and on one occasion Hera, in conjunction with Poseidon and Athena, contemplated putting Zeus into chains viii.
Zeus, in such cases, not only threatens, but beats her; and once he even hung her up in the clouds, her hands chained, and with two anvils suspended from her feet viii. Hence she is frightened by his threats, and gives way when he is angry; and when she is unable to gain her ends in any other way, she has recourse to cunning and intrigues xix. Thus she borrowed from Aphrodite the girdle, the giver of charm and fascination, to excite the love of Zeus xiv.
By Zeus she was the mother of Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus v. Respecting the different traditions about the descent of these three divinities see the separate articles.
Properly speaking, Hera was the only really married goddess among the Olympians, for the marriage of Aphrodite with Ares can scarcely be taken into consideration; and hence she is the goddess of marriage and of the birth of children.Now, they face an even more agonising decision.
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So Hera is described as jealous and quarrelsome. Among the more famous victims of Hera's jealousy is Hercules aka "Heracles," whose name means the glory of Hera. Hera persecuted the famous hero from before the time he could walk for the simple reason that Zeus was his father, but another woman -- Alcmene -- was his mother.
Despite the fact that Hera was not Hercules' mother, and despite her hostile actions -- such as sending snakes to kill him when he was a newborn baby, she served as his nurse when he was an infant. Hera is usually counted single parent mother of Hephaestus and the normal biological mother of Hebe and Ares. Share Flipboard Email. Ancient History and Latin Expert. Updated October 31, Hera persecuted many of the other women Zeus seduced, in one way or another.
Mair " Leto had relations with Zeus, for which she was hounded by Hera all over the earth. Clark argues that the king and queen of the gods had no children together. Hebe may have been fathered by a lettuce. The association between Hebe and Zeus may have been sexual rather than familial. Ares might have been conceived via a special flower from the fields of Olenus. Zeus' free admission of his paternity of Ares, Clark hints, may be only to avoid the scandal of being a cuckold.
On her own, Hera gave birth to Hephaestus. In Roman mythology, the goddess Hera is known as Juno.She is the daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea.
Hera rules over Mount Olympus as queen of the gods. A matronly figure, Hera served as both the patroness and protectress of married women, presiding over weddings and blessing marital unions. One of Hera's defining characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus' numerous lovers and illegitimate offspring, as well as the mortals who cross her.
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Hera is commonly seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cowlion and the peacock. Portrayed as majestic and solemn, often enthroned, and crowned with the polos a high cylindrical crown worn by several of the Great GoddessesHera may hold a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy.
Her Roman counterpart is Juno. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin. Hera may have been the first deity to whom the Greeks dedicated an enclosed roofed temple sanctuary, at Samos about BCE. It was replaced later by the Heraion of Samosone of the largest of all Greek temples altars were in front of the temples under the open sky.
There were many temples built on this site so evidence is somewhat confusing and archaeological dates are uncertain. The temple created by the Rhoecus sculptors and architects was destroyed between — BCE.
This was replaced by the Polycratean temple of — BCE. In one of these temples we see a forest of columns. There is also no evidence of tiles on this temple suggesting either the temple was never finished or that the temple was open to the sky. Earlier sanctuaries, whose dedication to Hera is less certain, were of the Mycenaean type called "house sanctuaries". Compared to this mighty goddess, who also possessed the earliest temple at Olympia and two of the great fifth and sixth century temples of Paestumthe termagant of Homer and the myths is an "almost Though greatest and earliest free-standing temple to Hera was the Heraion of Samosin the Greek mainland Hera was especially worshipped as "Argive Hera" Hera Argeia at her sanctuary that stood between the former Mycenaean city-states of Argos and Mycenae  where the festivals in her honor called Heraia were celebrated.
One of them, long called the Temple of Poseidon was identified in the s as a second temple there of Hera. In Euboeathe festival of the Great Daedalasacred to Hera, was celebrated on a sixty-year cycle. Hera's importance in the early archaic period is attested by the large building projects undertaken in her honor. The temples of Hera in the two main centers of her cultthe Heraion of Samos and the Heraion of Argos in the Argoliswere the very earliest monumental Greek temples constructed, in the 8th century BCE.
In the same vein, British scholar Charles Francis Keary suggests that Hera had some sort of "Earth Goddess" worship in ancient times,    connected to her possible origin as a Pelasgian goddess as mentioned by Herodotus. The other goddesses present at the birthing on Delos sent Iris to bring her. As she stepped upon the island, the divine birth began. The Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo makes the monster Typhaon the offspring of archaic Hera in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestusand whelped in a cave in Cilicia.
In the Temple of Hera, OlympiaHera's seated cult figure was older than the warrior figure of Zeus that accompanied it. Homer expressed her relationship with Zeus delicately in the Iliadin which she declares to Zeus, "I am Cronus ' eldest daughter, and am honourable not on this ground only, but also because I am your wife, and you are king of the gods.
There has been considerable scholarship, reaching back to Johann Jakob Bachofen in the mid-nineteenth century,  about the possibility that Hera, whose early importance in Greek religion is firmly established, was originally the goddess of a matriarchal people, presumably inhabiting Greece before the Hellenes.
In this view, her activity as goddess of marriage established the patriarchal bond of her own subordination: her resistance to the conquests of Zeus is rendered as Hera's "jealousy", the main theme of literary anecdotes that undercut her ancient cult. However, it remains a controversial claim that primitive matriarchy existed in Greece or elsewhere.
Hera is the daughter of the youngest Titan Cronus and his wife, and sister, Rhea. Cronus was fated to be overthrown by one of his children; to prevent this, he swallowed all of his newborn children whole until Rhea tricked him into swallowing a stone instead of her youngest child, Zeus. Zeus grew up in secret and when he grew up he tricked his father into regurgitating his siblings, including Hera.A woman is crouched in a closet, hiding from a boyfriend in an ongoing domestic dispute.
Hera - Queen of the Gods in Greek Mythology
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People HERA. Meet student member, Meilyka Amir. Innovate HERA. Smart welding — a practical research project.Hera is the wife of Zeusthe Queen of Olympus, and the Olympian goddess of marriage. As such, she is also the deity most associated with family and the welfare of women and children. Her marriage, however, was an unhappy one, since Zeus had numerous affairs. Jealous and vengeful, Hera made sure to give each of his consorts some hard time.
Based on the number of cults, Hera was a very ancient goddess, possibly predating even Zeus. Hera was usually portrayed alongside Zeusas a fully clothed matronly woman of solemn beauty, wearing a cylindrical crown called polos or a wreath and a veil. Sometimes she carries a scepter capped with a pomegranate and a cuckoo — the former a symbol of fertility, the latter a token of the way she was wooed by Zeus.
She is also often accompanied by a peacock, one of her sacred animals. Reasonably, since the Titan had to empty his stomach of his children in the order opposite of the one in which he ate them. Even though she was beautiful, not many men — and not one god — dared to lay hands on her.
Endymion tried once, but Zeus condemned him to eternal sleep. By most accounts, Hera gave Zeus four children: Aresthe god of war, Eileithyiathe goddess of childbirth, Hebethe goddess of eternal youth, and Hephaestusthe god of fire. Zeus tricked Hera into marriage. Knowing full well that the goddess loved animals, he transformed himself into a distressed cuckoo and reverted to his original form only when Hera took the poor creature to her breast to warm it.
Ashamed for being taken advantage of, Hera agreed to a marriage. Zeus was brutish and cruel to everybody. Incapable of bearing this, Hera plotted a revenge plan with PoseidonAthena and possibly few other gods.
She drugged Zeusand they bound him on his bed, while stealing his thunderbolt. Thetishowever, summoned Briareus and he managed to quickly untie Zeuswho was, subsequently, merciless to the main schemer: he hung Hera from the sky with golden chains.
To grant herself a release, Hera swore to never rebel again against her husband. For example, she tricked Semele into forcing her lover — which she knew was Zeus — to reveal himself before her in all his glory.